Pengertian, Rumus, Contoh Kalimat & Contoh Soal Present Perfect tense

Pada pelajaran Present Perfect Tense ini, sobat Kinceters akan mengetahui pengertian, rumus, contoh kalimat positif, kalimat negatif dan kalimat tanya serta contoh soal untuk mengasah kemampuan sobat tentan present perfect tense.

Pengertian Present Perfect Tense

Pada artikel sebelumnya, Kincet.com sudah membahas:

  1. Simple Present Tense
  2. Present Continuous Tense
  3. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Bagi sobat Kinceters yang belum belajar tentang kedua tenses tersebut diatas, Kincet.com anjurkan untuk menguasai kedua tenses tersebut terlebih dahulu sebelum melanjutkan ke tenses yang lebih rumit “Present Perfect Tense“.

Pada artikel ini, sobat Kinceters akan belajar apa itu “Present Perfect Tense“, kapan menggunakannya dan juga bagaimana membuat kalimat Present Perfect Tense.

Tapi, sebelum kita membahas Present Perfect Tense secara detail, Kincet.com ingin memberikan sedikit gambaran perbedaan antara Simple Past Tense & Present Perfect Tense, karena kedua tenses sering kali membingungkan, terutama untuk para pemula.

Simple Past Tense & Present perfect tense sama-sama dipakai untuk menceritakan atau menjelaskan suatu perbuatan, aksi atau peristiwa di waktu lampau. Nah, lho…tambah bingung kan?

Okay, sederhana nya begini.

Kita gunakan simple past tense untuk menjelaskan kegiatan atau peristiwa yang sudah selesai di waktu itu (Finished Time), sedangkan present perfect tense digunakan menjelaskan suatu kegiatan atau peristiwa yang dimulai di waktu lampau dan kemungkinan masih akan berlanjut di waktu sekarang (Unfinished Time).

Coba kita bandingkan kedua kalimat di bawah ini.

1. We went to Jakarta three times last month (Simple Past Tense)

Kami pergi ke Jakarta sebanyak tiga kali bulan kemarin, kegiatan tersebut sudah selesai di waktu itu.

2. We have gone to Jakarta three times this month (Present Perfect Tense)

Kami telah pergi ke Jakarta sebanyak tiga kali bulan ini, dan kemungkinan masih akan pergi ke Jakarta lagi pada bulan ini.

Jadi, jangan sampai bingung lagi kapan menggunakan simple past tense dan kapan menggunakan present perfect tense.

Itulah sekilas perbedaan antara simple past tense dan present perfect tense, yuk kita kembali ke pokok bahasan hari ini.

Jenis Present Perfect Tense

Present perfect tense dibagi menjadi dua jenis tense yaitu tense verbal (memakai kata kerja) dan tense nominal (menjelaskan orang, object, benda atau abstraksi).

Rumus Present Perfect Tense

1. Pengertian Present Perfect Tense Verbal

Pengertian Present Perfect Tense adalah sebuah tenses yang digunakan untuk menjelaskan suatu perbuatan atau peristiwa yang telah selesai kita kerjakan, namun tidak dititik beratkan pada keterangan waktunya.

Selain itu, Present Perfect Tense juga bisa digunakan untuk menceritakan pengalaman hidup dan kegiatan atau aksi yang telah kita kerjakan atau telah terjadi dimasa lampau dan masih berlangsung hingga saat sekarang ini.

2. Rumus Present Perfect Tense Verbal

Pada rumus present perfect tense kita menggunakan kata kerja bentuk ketiga (Verb-3) sebagai kata kerja utamanya dan tidak menitik beratkan pada keterangan waktu terjadinya suatu aksi atau kegiatan.

Note: Bagi sobat Kinceters yang belum tahu pasangan Subject & Have/Has, berikut uraian singkat pasangan subject & Have/Has

HAS digunakan untuk subject I, You, We, They

Have digunakan untuk orang ketiga tunggal He, She & It

A. Kalimat Positif

SubjectHas/HaveVerb 3Object
Ihavegoneto America.
Youhaveseenghost.
Wehavedonehomework.
Theyhaveclimbedmount Everest.
Hehasboughta new car.
Shehascookedrice.
It (cat)haseatenthe fish.

B. Kalimat Negatif

Seperti biasa, setiap kali ingin merubah kalimat ke dalam bentuk negatif, kita cukup menambahkan “NOT” setelah auxiliary verb (Have/Has).

SubjectHas/HaveNotVerb 3Object
Ihavenotgoneto America.
Youhavenotseenghost.
Wehavenotdonehomework.
Theyhavenotclimbedmount Everest.
Hehasnotboughta new car.
Shehasnotcookedrice.
It (cat)hasnoteatenthe fish.

C. Kalimat Interogatif

Untuk membuat kalimat pertanyaan sederhana, kita bisa meletakkan auxiliary verb (Has/Have) di awal kalimat sebelum subject dan menambahkan tanda tanya (?) di akhir kalimat.

Has/HaveSubjectVerb 3Object
HaveIgoneto America?
Haveyouseenghost?
Havewedonehomework?
Havetheyclimbedmount Everest?
Hasheboughta new car?
Hasshecookedrice?
Hasit (cat)eaten the fish?

D. Cara Menjawab YES/NO Questions

Untuk menjawab pertanyaan dari kalimat di atas, kita bisa menggunakan 2 versi jawaban yaitu jawaban singkat (Short Answer) & jawaban panjang (Long Answer).

Short AnswerLong Answer
Yes, you have.Yes, you have gone to America.
No, you have not.No, you have not gone to America.
Yes, I have.Yes, I have seen ghost.
No, I have not.No, I have not seen ghost.
Yes, we have.Yes, we have done homework.
No, we have not.No, we have not done homework.
Yes, they have.Yes, they have climbed mount Everest.
No, they have not.No, they have not climbed mount Everest.
Yes, he has.Yes, he has bought a new car.
No, he has not.No, he has not bought a new car.
Yes, she has.Yes, she has cooked rice.
No, she has not.No, she has not cooked rice.
Yes, it has.Yes, it (cat) has eaten the fish.
No, it has not.No, it (cat) has not eaten the fish.

Present Perfect Tense bisa juga digunakan untuk menceritakan atau menjelaskan pengalaman yang pernah atau belum pernah dilakukan sama sekali di masa lalu. Biasanya kalimat itu di ikuti oleh “Adverb of Frequency“, seperti:

  • Once : sekali
  • Twice : dua kali
  • Thrice/ three times : tiga kali
  • Four times : empat kali
  • Several times : beberapa kali
  • Ever : pernah
  • Never : tidak pernah
  • Before : sebelumnya
  • Forever : untuk selama-lamanya

Contoh Kalimat:

  • I have gone to Bali twice this year.
  • She has met me several times this month.
  • You have ever read that novel.
  • He has heard the news before.
  • I have never gone to Indonesia.

Selain dari kedua fungsi diatas, Present Perfect Tense bisa juga digunakan untuk menjelaskan suatu perbuatan atau peristiwa yang telah kita kerjakan atau terjadi dimasa lampau dan masih sedang berlangsung hingga saat sekarang ini.

Contoh Kalimat:

  • I have studied English for two years.
  • You have waited me here since two hours ago.
  • We have lived in this city since last year.
  • They have worked in the garden since this morning.
  • He has swum in the swimming pool for ten minutes.
  • She has made cakes for five days.
  • It has rained since last night.
  • The movie has started since 11 p.m.

Kalimat Nominal

3. Pengertian Present Perfect Tense Nominal

Present perfect tense nominal adalah tense yang tidak menggunakan kata kerja, melainkan kata sifat, kata benda dan keterangan.

4. Rumus Present Perfect Tense Nominal

Untuk membuat kalimat nominal, maka kita harus menambahkan “BEEN” setelah Have/Has. Untuk lebih jelas, yuk lihat rumus dibawah ini.

A. Kalimat Positif

SubjectHave/HasBeenAdjective/Noun/AdverbFor/Since
Ihavebeensicksince last week.
Youhavebeena teacherfor twenty years.
Wehavebeenin this townsince two years.
Theyhavebeenhappy
Shehasbeena nursefor ten months.
Hehasbeena singersince last year.
Ithasbeencoldsince this morning.

B. Kalimat Negatif

SubjectHave/HasNotBeenAdjective/Noun/AdverbFor/Since
Ihavenotbeensicksince last week.
Youhavenotbeena teacherfor twenty years.
Wehavenotbeenin this townsince two years.
Theyhavenotbeenhappy
Shehasnotbeena nursefor ten months.
Hehasnotbeena singersince last year.
Ithasnotbeencoldsince this morning

C. Kalimat Interogatif 

Have/HasSubjectBeenAdjective/Noun/AdverbFor/Since
HaveIbeensicksince last week?
Haveyoubeena teacherfor twenty years?
Havewebeenin this townsince two years?
Havetheybeenhappy?
Hasshebeena nursefor ten months?
Hashebeena singersince last year?
Hasitbeencoldsince this morning?

D. Cara Menjawab Yes/No Questions

Short AnswerLong Answer
Yes, you have.Yes, you have been sick since last week.
No, you haven’t.No, you haven’t been sick since last week.
Yes, I have.Yes, I have been a teacher for twenty years.
No, I haven’t.No, you haven’t been a teacher for twenty years.
Yes, we have.Yes, we have been in this town since two years.
No, we haven’tNo, we haven’t been in this town since two years.
Yes, they have.Yes, they have been happy.
No, they haven’tNo, they have not been been happy.
Yes, she has.Yes, she has been a nurse for ten months.
No, she hasn’t.No, she hasn’t been a nurse for ten months.
Yes, he has.Yes, he has been a singer since last year.
No, he hasn’tNo, he hasn’t been a singer since last year.
Yes, it has.Yes, it has been cold since this morning.
No, it hasn’t.No, it hasn’t been cold since this morning.

5. Contoh Kalimat Present Perfect Tense

Contoh Kalimat Present Perfect Tense

Pada 10 contoh kalimat present perfect tense di bawah ini, Kincet.com mengajak Kinceters untuk mengidentifikasi mana kalimat present perfect tense verbal dan mana kalimat present perfect tense nominal.

Jika lupa, silahkan baca ulang apa itu kalimat verbal dan kalimat nominal.

A. Kalimat Positif

  1. I have worked in Japan for three months.
  2. We have been on holiday since last week.
  3. You have been in this room for two hours.
  4. I have met Beyonce before.
  5. She has been a student for two years.
  6. They have traveled around the world.
  7. Jenny has hurt me twice.
  8. He has visited our home several times.
  9. The dog has barked three times today.
  10. We have returned the books to the library today.

B. Kalimat Negatif

  1. I haven’t worked in Japan for three months.
  2. We haven’t been on holiday since last week.
  3. You haven’t been in this room for two hours.
  4. I haven’t met Beyonce before.
  5. She hasn’t been a student for two years.
  6. They haven’t traveled around the world.
  7. Jenny hasn’t hurt me twice.
  8. He hasn’t visited our home several times.
  9. The dog hasn’t barked three times today.
  10. We haven’t returned the books to the library today.

C. Kalimat Interogatif

  1. Have I worked in Japan for three months?
  2. Have we been on holiday since last week?
  3. Have you been in this room for two hours?
  4. Have I met Beyonce before?
  5. Has she been a student for two years?
  6. Have they traveled around the world?
  7. Has Jenny hurt me twice?
  8. Has he visited our home several times?
  9. Has the dog barked three times today?
  10. Have we returned the books to the library today?

D. Contoh Kalimat Present Perfect Tense Dengan Question Words

Kata Tanya

Selain pertanyaan menggunakan kalimat sederhana diatas, sobat Kinceters juga bisa mengembangkan tense ini dengan menggunakan Question Words.

A : How long have you studied English?

B : I have studied English for three months.

A : How many years have you lived here?

B : I have lived here for five years.

A : Where has he gone since last week?

B : He has gone to Bandung since last week.

A : Who has waited you here since this morning?

B : My friend Andi has waited me here since this morning.

A : Where have you gone?

B : I have gone to America.

A : How many times has he come to Indonesia?

B : He has come to Indonesia three times.

A : What have they eaten?

B : They have eaten fried rice.

A : Who has swum in that swimming pool?

B : My sister has swum in that swimming pool.

A : Why has he left you?

B : Because he has hated me.

6. Contoh Soal Present Perfect Tense

Contoh Soal Present Perfect Tense
Contoh Soal Present Perfect Tense

Bagaimana sejauh ini? Sudah faham fungsi dan bentuk kalimat present perfect tense?

Untuk melatih pemahaman Kinceters lebih dalam, Kincet.com sediakan beberapa contoh soal latihan yang bisa sobat Kinceters kerjakan dirumah.

A. Essay

Terjemahkanlah kalimat-kalimat berikut ini kedalam Bahasa Inggris.

  1. Apakah kamu sudah mengerti tentang pelajaran ini?
  2. Saya sudah menonton film titanic.
  3. Ibu saya belum makan siang.
  4. Apa yang telah dia(pr) lakukan untuk membuat orangtuanya bangga?
  5. Kami telah berada disini sejak tadi malam.
  6. Sudah berapa lama kakekmu di Inggris?
  7. Mereka belum pernah mendengarkan suara aneh di rumah tua itu.
  8. Mengapa dia(lk) telah melupakan kita?
  9. Saya telah merasa haus dan lapar sejak lima menit yang lalu.
  10. Sudah berapa kali mereka menginap dirumahmu?

B. Pilihan Ganda

Pilihlah jawaban yang benar A, B, C atau D

1. She has …her new house.

a. sell
b. sold
c. been
d. buy

2. We haven’t….about the big tragedy.

a. forgotten
b. forget
c. forgot
d. forgave

3. Have they… a two – head ghost?

a. saw
b. see
c. seen
d. seeing

4. The children have….for fifteen minutes

a. swam
b. swum
c. swim
d. swimming

5. He has … homework in his studying room

a. done
b. do
c. doing
d. did

6. How long have you ….English?

a. learn
b. spoke
c. studied
d. learning

7. Have they ….lunch in that restaurant?

a. has
b. have
c. having
d. had

8. The school bell has…

a. rung
b. ring
c. ringing
d. rang

9….their sister…a car to school?

a. have- driven
b. has- drove
c. have -drive
c. has -driven

10. What has she …in her bedroom?

a. written
b. writing
c. wrote
d. write

C. Jumble Word (Menyusun Kalimat)

Susunlah kata-kata berikut ini menjadi kalimat yang benar.

  1. has – lazy – month – been – she – last – since
  2. have – coffee – not – we – drunk
  3. books – have – to – returned – you – library?
  4. not – money – since – I – got – yesterday – have
  5. times – mountain – many – climbed – have – they – how?
  6. island – never – to – he – Bali – been – has
  7. novels – you – in – night – bedroom – read –since – what – last – have?
  8. fished – long – he – river – how – the – has – in?
  9. plates – mother – put – glasses –has – table – and – the – on
  10. a – you – of – drunk – hot – cup – have – tea?

Akhir Kata

Itulah penjelasan detail tentang fungsi, rumus dan contoh kalimat present perfect tense. Kincet.com juga telah menyertakan soal-soal latihan yang diharapkan bisa membantu sobat Kinceters dalam membedakan, memahami dan menguasai tenses dalam bahasa Inggris.

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